Intraoperative Ultrasound Navigation with Doppler Function to Guide Arteriovenous Malformation Resection: 3-Dimensional Operative Video

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2019 Oct 1;17(4):E162-E163. doi: 10.1093/ons/opz006.


Intraoperative ultrasound navigation was initially introduced in the neurosurgical field for brain tumor surgery and was then extended to arteriovenous malformation surgery with good success. This tool provides real-time intraoperative images.1 Moreover, Doppler ultrasound permits early identification of feeding arteries and supplies the surgeon with a global impression of the flow dynamics.2 A further use of doppler is to check for residual nidus. Other advantages are the capacity to identify intracerebral hemorrhage.2 In this video, we demonstrate the case of a 15-yr-old patient who presented intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of left frontoparietal hematoma associated with an image suggestive of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Arteriography confirmed the diagnosis of AVM fed by branches of the anterior cerebral and superficial drainage for the superior sagittal sinus. The patient was placed in dorsal decubitus with his head turned to the right and a left parietal-frontal craniotomy was performed. After the dura mater was opened, cortical mapping was performed to locate the motor and sensory cortex. After the mapping, ultrasound with doppler was performed to locate the AVM and the hematoma and determine its relation to the motor and sensory cortex. At the end of the surgery, doppler ultrasound was used again to ensure complete resection of the AVM. Intraoperative Ultrasound navigation with doppler is an inexpensive technology that can be used in the treatment of AVMs, especially in the subcortex, as it assists in locating the nidus and confirms its complete resection.

Keywords: AVM resection; Arteriovenous malformation; Doppler ultrasound; Intraoperative ultrasound.