Water-contact patterns in relation to Schistosoma haematobium infection

Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56(3):417-26.


Water-contact observations were carried out on a population exposed to Schistosoma haematobium in a village situated on a man-made lake, Lake Volta, Ghana.The observations were made over a period of 12 months prior to the introduction of control measures. A multiple regression analysis was performed on the results of observations on 132 individuals, with egg output as the dependent variable and various types of water-contact activity, as well as age and sex, as independent variables. In the analysis, specific activities, notably water-contact for domestic purposes and activities associated with fishermen's canoes, were found to be significantly related to schistosomiasis. Age was less important than degree of exposure as a contributory factor to variations in infection rates: the reduced intensity of infection of S. haematobium in the older age groups could be mainly due to a lower level of exposure to the cercarial population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Ghana
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Regression Analysis
  • Schistosoma haematobium
  • Schistosomiasis / transmission*
  • Water*


  • Water