Background: Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is effective therapy for Kawasaki disease (KD), the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children, 10-20% of patients are IVIG-resistant and require additional therapy. This group has an increased risk of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) and there has been no adequately powered, randomized clinical trial in a multi-ethnic population to determine the optimal therapy for IVIG-resistant patients.
Objectives: The primary outcome is duration of fever in IVIG-resistant patients randomized to treatment with either infliximab or a second IVIG infusion. Secondary outcomes include comparison of inflammatory markers, duration of hospitalization, and coronary artery outcome. An exploratory aim records parent-reported outcomes including signs, symptoms and treatment experience.
Methods: The KIDCARE trial is a 30-site randomized Phase III comparative effectiveness trial in KD patients with fever ≥36 h after the completion of their first IVIG treatment. Eligible patients will be randomized to receive either a second dose of IVIG (2 g/kg) or infliximab (10 mg/kg). Subjects with persistent or recrudescent fever at 24 h following completion of the first study treatment will cross-over to the other treatment arm. Subjects will exit the study after their first outpatient visit (5-18 days following last study treatment). The parent-reported outcomes, collected daily during hospitalization and at home, will be compared by study arm.
Conclusion: This trial will contribute to the management of IVIG-resistant patients by establishing the relative efficacy of a second dose of IVIG compared to infliximab and will provide data regarding the patient/parent experience of these treatments.
Keywords: IVIG; IVIG-resistance; Infliximab; Kawasaki disease.
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