Hematological malignancies can manifest as extramedullary soft tissue masses in relatively rare cases. The rarity of it causes a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. One of the rarest manifestations is myeloid sarcoma (MS). MS develops as part of acute myeloid leukemia, myeloproliferative neoplasm, or myelodysplastic syndrome or at relapse, especially following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The tumor displays high myeloperoxidase expression, hence the color green, and is called chloroma. It most commonly appears in lymph nodes, skin and soft tissues, bone, testes, gastrointestinal tract, and peritoneum. Immunohistochemistry shows CD68-KP1 as the most commonly expressed marker, then myeloperoxidase, CD117, CD99, CD68/PG-M1, lysozyme, CD34, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, CD56, CD61, CD30, glycophorin A, and CD4. Different chromosomal abnormalities including MLL rearrangement, t(8; 21), monosomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 11, trisomy 4, inversion (16), monosomy 16,16q deletion, 5q deletion, and 20q deletion were reported. Most of the literature about MS are case reports and small retrospective studies, thus there is limited clinical knowledge of the cases and their presentation and management plans. Here, we provide a review of what has been reported in the literature about MS in the light of our experiences.
Keywords: Chloroma; Extramedullary soft tissue masses; Myeloid sarcoma; Sarcoma.
© 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel.