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. 2019 Mar 5;20(5):1127.
doi: 10.3390/ijms20051127.

Optimized Surface Characteristics and Enhanced in Vivo Osseointegration of Alkali-Treated Titanium With Nanonetwork Structures

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Free PMC article

Optimized Surface Characteristics and Enhanced in Vivo Osseointegration of Alkali-Treated Titanium With Nanonetwork Structures

Yuhao Zeng et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Alkali-treated titanium (Ti) with a porous, homogeneous, and uniform nanonetwork structure (TNS) that enables establishment of a more rapid and firmer osteointegration than titanium has recently been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying the enhanced osteogenic activity on TNS remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the surface physicochemical properties of Ti and TNS, and investigate osteoinduction and osteointegration in vivo. Surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and the surface electrostatic force of TNS was determined using solid zeta potential. This study also evaluated the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human plasma fibronectin (HFN) on Ti and TNS surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors, and apatite formation on Ti and TNS surfaces was examined using a simulated body fluid (SBF) test. Compared with Ti, the newly developed TNS enhanced BSA and HFN absorbance capacity and promoted apatite formation. Furthermore, TNS held less negative charge than Ti. Notably, sequential fluorescence labeling and microcomputed tomography assessment indicated that TNS screws implanted into rat femurs exhibited remarkably enhanced osteointegration compared with Ti screws. These results indicate that alkali-treated titanium implant with a nanonetwork structure has considerable potential for future clinical applications in dentistry and orthopedics.

Keywords: alkali treatment; implant; in vivo study; nanonetwork; osseointegration.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Scanning electron micrographs of (A) Ti and (B) TNS.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Scanning probe micrographs of (A) Ti and (B) TNS.
Figure 3
Figure 3
XPS survey spectra of Ti and TNS by wide analysis (A) and narrow analysis of C1s (B).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Zeta potential of Ti and TNS (p < 0.01).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Adsorption of albumin and fibronectin on Ti QCM sensors (A) and TNS QCM sensors (B).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Deposition of apatite on Ti (A) and TNS (B).
Figure 7
Figure 7
Longitudinal reconstructed microcomputed tomographs (A), of Ti (B) and TNS (C) implants within the region of interest eight weeks after surgery.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Bone mineral density (BMD) (A) of Ti and TNS, Bone volume to total volume ratio (BV/TV) (b). * p < 0.05.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Villanueva staining of bone tissues around Ti (A) and TNS (B) implants.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Bone area ratio (BA) (A) and bone–implant contact (BIC) (B) of Ti and TNS implants. * p < 0.05.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Fluorescence labeling of new bone and mineralization around Ti (A) and TNS (B) implants.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Fluorescently labeled bone area (LBA) after one week (A), four weeks (B), and eight weeks (C). * p < 0.05.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Gross appearance of titanium (Ti) and titanium with nanonetwork structures (TNS) (A) discs, (B) QCM sensors, and (C) screws.
Figure 14
Figure 14
Implantation into rat femurs. (A) Incision; (B) drilling a hole; (C) placement of the implant; and (D) closure.

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