Thirty genetic alterations, which involve the 4BC region of the Drosophila X chromosome, have been induced by ionizing radiation or by an endogenous mutator element. These mutations were recovered by screening for reversion of the dominant mutants Oce and Qd or for induction of the recessive mutants bi and rb. Among the 23 mutants generated by ionizing radiation, 20 have proven to be cytologically detectable chromosomal aberrations. Seven additional unique aberrations were generated in the Uc mutator strain. In total, 22 cytologically detectable deficiencies, 3 translocations, 1 inversion, 1 transposition, and 3 cytologically normal mutants have been recovered. Complementation analysis has permitted the cytogenetic localization of eight genes in the 4BC region. The mei-9 locus has been assigned to region 4B4-6, because this function is carried by Df(1)rb41 but not by Df(1)biD1. The norpA locus has been placed in the 4B6-C1 region based on its location between the distal breakpoints of Df(1)biD2 and Df(1)rb41. The genes lac, Qd, bi, and omb are localized to bands 4C5,6, rb to 4C6 and amb to 4C7,8. With one exception the complementation analysis has also permitted a determination of the linear sequence of these genes. This cytogenetic localization of these loci will facilitate the cloning and molecular analysis of genes controlling a key function in DNA repair and recombination (mei-9), and two fundamental neural functions (norpA and omb).