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Review
. Mar-Apr 2019;62(2):172-178.
doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.02.007. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

A Role for FNDC5/Irisin in the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on the Brain and in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Free PMC article
Review

A Role for FNDC5/Irisin in the Beneficial Effects of Exercise on the Brain and in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Michael F Young et al. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The beneficial effects of exercise on the brain are well known. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are much less well understood. Interestingly, myokines, hormones secreted by muscle in response to exercise, gained attention as such beneficial mediators. In this review, we will focus on FNDC5 and its secreted form, the newly discovered myokine "irisin". We will discuss their role in the beneficial effects of exercise and its potential application in neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Cognition; Exercise; FNDC5; Hippocampus; Irisin; Neurodegeneration; Physical activity.

Conflict of interest statement

Statement of conflict of interest: C.D.W. is holder of US Patent Application, WO 2015051007 A1

Figures

Fig 1.
Fig 1.
The beneficial effects of exercise on the brain. Exercise has many beneficial effects on the brain ranging from neurogenesis to improvements in memory function. These include a reduction in neuroinflammation, improvements in synaptic plasticity, increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and improvements in memory, mainly spatial learning and memory as well as pattern separation.
Fig 2.
Fig 2.
Analysis of Irisin Peptides by Mass Spectrometry. (a) Scheme of the murine FNDC5 protein structure (top) and murine irisin protein structure (bottom). SP signal peptide, H hydrophobic domain, C cytoplasmic domain. (b) Murine FNDC5 amino acid sequence with corresponding domains colored. The irisin sequence is in yellow.
Fig 3.
Fig 3.
The effects of both irisin and exercise on neurodegenerative disease Irisin has been shown to have beneficial effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.
Fig 4.
Fig 4.
The role of FNDC5/irisin in exercise and the brain. Exercise has been shown to be a strong stimulus for the upregulation of FNDC5/irisin. In addition to the metabolic benefits of FNDC5/irisin, it has also been shown to play a role in neuronal differentiation and neuroprotection in brain.

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