The effect of ginger supplementation on some immunity and inflammation intermediate genes expression in patients with active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Gene. 2019 May 25:698:179-185. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2019.01.048. Epub 2019 Mar 4.


Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger supplementation on the expression of some immunity and inflammation intermediate genes in patients who suffer from RA.

Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, seventy active RA patients were allocated randomly into two groups who either received 1500 mg ginger powder or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Disease activity score and gene expression of NF-κB, PPAR-γ, FoxP3, T-bet, GATA-3, and RORγt as immunity and inflammation intermediate factors were measured using quantitative real-time PCR before and after the intervention.

Results: After the intervention, FoxP3 genes expression increased significantly within ginger group and between the two groups (P-value = 0.02). Besides, T-bet and RORγt genes expression decreased significantly between the two groups (P-value < 0.05). In ginger group, PPAR-γ genes expression increased significantly (P-value = 0.047) but the difference between the two groups wasn't statistically significant (P-value = 0.12). The reduction in disease activity score was statistically significant within ginger group and between the two groups after the intervention.

Conclusion: It seems that ginger can improve RA by decreasing disease manifestations via increasing FoxP3 genes expression and by decreasing RORγt and T-bet genes expression.

Keywords: Ginger; Immunity; Inflammation; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / genetics
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / drug effects
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor / drug effects
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Immunity / drug effects*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • NF-kappa B / drug effects
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3 / drug effects
  • PPAR gamma / drug effects
  • Phytotherapy / methods
  • Placebo Effect
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Zingiber officinale / metabolism*


  • FOXP3 protein, human
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3
  • PPAR gamma
  • Plant Extracts