Discovery, characterisation and genomic variation of six novel Gammapapillomavirus types from penile swabs in South Africa

Papillomavirus Res. 2019 Jun;7:102-111. doi: 10.1016/j.pvr.2019.02.005. Epub 2019 Mar 4.


Six novel human papillomaviruses from penile swabs were characterised. Multiple full genome clones for each novel type were generated, and complete genome sizes were: HPV211 (7253bp), HPV212 (7208bp), HPV213 (7096bp), HPV214 (7357), HPV215 (7186bp) and HPV216 (7233bp). Phylogenetically the novel papillomaviruses all clustered with Gammapapillomaviruses: HPV211 is most closely related to HPV168 (72% identity in the L1 nucleotide sequence) of the Gamma-8 species, HPV212 is most closely related to HPV144 (82.9%) of the Gamma-17 species, HPV213 is most closely related to HPV153 (71.8%) of the Gamma-13 species, HPV214 is most closely related to HPV103 (75.3%) of the Gamma-6 species, HPV215 and HPV216 are most closely related to HPV129 (76.8% and 79.2% respectively) of the Gamma-9 species. The novel HPV types demonstrated the classical genomic organisation of Gammapapillomavirusess, with seven open reading frames (ORFs) encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6 and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins. Typical of Gammapapillomavirusess the novel types all lacked the E5 ORF and HPV214 also lacked the E6 ORF. HPV212 had nine unique variants, HPV213 had five and HPV215 had four variants. Conserved domains observed among the novel types are the Zinc finger Binding Domain and PDZ domains. A retinoblastoma binding domain (pRB) binding domain in E7 protein was additionally identified in HPV214. This study expands the knowledge of the rapidly growing Gammapapillomavirus genus.

Keywords: Gammapapillomavirus; Penile.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Female
  • Gammapapillomavirus / classification*
  • Gammapapillomavirus / genetics
  • Gammapapillomavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Viral
  • Genotype*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Papillomavirus Infections / virology*
  • Penile Diseases / virology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • South Africa