Dengue virus (DENV) consists of four serotypes. Sequential serotype infections can cause increased disease severity, likely due to antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Here, we review two recent papers showing major advancements in the understanding of the ADE mechanism for both mature and immature DENV. The surface of both mature and immature DENV contains E and another protein - M in mature and prM in immature virus. On mature DENV, the orientation of anti-E antibody with respect to the virus surface determines the antibody enhancement properties. On the immature virus, binding of anti-prM antibody aids the dissociation of pr from the fusion loop of E protein allowing virus-endosomal membrane interaction, thus overcoming the hurdle in the early step of fusion.
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