Choledocholithiasis is a common disorder that is managed universally by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). For difficult or complex stones, ERCP with conventional techniques may fail to achieve biliary clearance in 10% to 15% of cases. This review summarizes the literature regarding the current available endoscopic techniques for complex stone disease, including mechanical lithotripsy, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation, cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary access.
Keywords: Bile duct stone; Cholangioscopy; Choledocholithiasis; ERCP; Laser lithotripsy; Lithotripsy.
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