Background: Operative fixation for femoral metastatic bone disease is based on the principles of reducing pain and restoring function. Recent literature has proposed a number of prognostic models for appendicular metastatic bone disease. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of proposed soring systems in the setting of femoral metastatic bone disease in order to provide surgeons with information to determine the most appropriate scoring system in this setting.
Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of patients who underwent surgical management of femoral metastatic bone disease at a single institution were included. A pre-operative predicted survival for all 114 patients was retrospectively calculated utilising the revised Katagiri model, PathFx model, SSG score, Janssen nomogram, OPTModel and SPRING 13 nomogram. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression proportional hazard models were constructed to assess the role of prognostic variables in the patient group. Area under the receiver characteristics and Brier scores were calculated for each prognostic model from comparison of predicted survival and actual survival of patients to quantify the accuracy of each model.
Results: For the femoral metastatic bone disease patients treated with surgical fixation, multivariate analysis demonstrated a number of pre-operative factors associated with survival in femoral metastatic bone disease, consistent with established literature. The OPTIModel demonstrated the highest accuracy at predicting 12-month (Area Under the Curve [AUC] = 0.79) and 24-month (AUC = 0.77) survival after surgical management. PathFx model was the most accurate at predicting 3-month survival (AUC = 0.70) and 6-month (AUC = 0.70) survival. The PathFx model was successfully externally validated in the femoral patient dataset for all time periods.
Conclusions: Among six prognostic models assessed in the setting of femoral metastatic bone disease, the present study observed the most accurate model for 3-month, 6-month, 12-month and 24-month survival. The results of this study may be utilised by the treating surgical team to determine the most accurate model for the required time period and therefore improve decision-making in the care of patients with femoral metastatic bone disease.
Keywords: ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ASA, American Society of Anaesthesiologists score; AUC, Area Under the Curve; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; ECOG, Eastern Cooperation Oncology Group; Femur; MBD, metastatic bone disease; Metastatic bone disease; Nomogram; Prognosis; ROC, Receiver Operating Characteristic; SSG, Scandinavian Sarcoma Group; Scoring system; Surgery.