Antimicrobial resistance prevalence, rates of hospitalization with septicemia and rates of mortality with sepsis in adults in different US states

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2019 Jul;54(1):23-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.03.004. Epub 2019 Mar 6.


Objectives: Rates of hospitalization with sepsis/septicemia and associated mortality in the US have risen significantly during the last two decades. Antibiotic resistance may contribute to the rates of sepsis-related outcomes through lack of clearance of bacterial infections following antibiotic treatment during different stages of infection. However, there is limited information about the relationship between prevalence of resistance to various antibiotics in different bacteria and rates of sepsis-related outcomes.

Methods: For different age groups of adults (18-49y, 50-64y, 65-74y, 75-84y, 85+y) and combinations of antibiotics/bacteria, we evaluated associations between state-specific prevalence (percentage) of resistant samples for a given combination of antibiotics/bacteria among catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in the CDC Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas data between 2011-2014, and rates of hospitalization with septicemia (ICD-9 codes 038.xx present on the discharge diagnosis) reported to the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), as well as rates of mortality with sepsis (ICD-10 codes A40-41.xx present on death certificate).

Results: Among the different combinations of antibiotics/bacteria, prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli had the strongest association with septicemia hospitalization rates for individuals aged over 50y, and with sepsis mortality rates for individuals aged 18-84y. There were several positive correlations between prevalence of resistance for different combinations of antibiotics/bacteria and septicemia hospitalization/sepsis mortality rates in adults.

Conclusions: These findings, and those from work on the relationship between antibiotic use and sepsis rates, support the association between use of/resistance to certain antibiotics and rates of sepsis-related outcomes, indicating the potential utility of antibiotic replacement.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; E. coli; fluoroquinolones; mortality; sepsis; septicemia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Bacterial Infections / epidemiology*
  • Bacterial Infections / mortality*
  • Catheter-Related Infections / complications
  • Catheter-Related Infections / epidemiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Sepsis / epidemiology*
  • Sepsis / mortality*
  • Survival Analysis
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / complications
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Young Adult