Orthognathic Surgery for Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate

Clin Plast Surg. 2019 Apr;46(2):157-171. doi: 10.1016/j.cps.2018.11.002. Epub 2019 Feb 6.


Cleft orthognathic surgery is an important component of a comprehensive cleft care plan. Applying combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment principles to a cohort of patients with cleft lip and palate raises many challenges not encountered in conventional orthognathic care. Cleft patients share a commonality in their midfacial anatomy that is characterized by a 3-dimensionally deficient maxilla. The residual sequelae of multiple previous surgeries along with dental differences and unhealed fistulae are considerations when embarking on treatment. This article describes many of these challenges and highlights approaches that are used to address the specific needs of this special group of patients.

Keywords: Alveolar bone graft; Cleft; Cleft palate; Distraction; Fistula; Lip; Orthodontic; Orthognathic.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Bone Grafting
  • Cleft Lip / surgery*
  • Cleft Palate / surgery*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maxilla / abnormalities
  • Maxilla / surgery*
  • Oral Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Orthodontic Brackets
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects
  • Orthognathic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Osteogenesis, Distraction / methods*
  • Osteotomy, Le Fort
  • Postoperative Care
  • Postoperative Complications