Purpose: No study has summarized earlier findings on the effect of probiotic supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to systematically review the available placebo-controlled clinical trials about the effect of probiotic supplementation on several inflammatory biomarkers in adults.
Methods: Relevant papers published up to March 2018 were searched up through PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, using following suitable keywords. Clinical trials that examined the effect of probiotic supplementation on inflammation in adults were included.
Results: Overall, 42 randomized clinical trials (1138 participants in intervention and 1120 participants in control groups) were included. Combining findings from included studies, we found a significant reduction in serum hs-CRP [standardized mean difference (SMD) - 0.46; 95% CI - 0.73, - 0.19], TNF-a (- 0.21; - 0.34, - 0.08), IL-6 (- 0.37; - 0.51, - 0.24), IL-12 (- 0.47; - 0.67, - 0.27), and IL-4 concentrations (- 0.48; - 0.76, - 0.20) after probiotic supplementation. Pooling effect sizes from 11 studies with 12 effect sizes, a significant increase in IL-10 concentrations was seen (0.21; 0.04, 0.38). We failed to find a significant effect of probiotic supplementation on serum IL-1B (- 0.17; - 0.37, 0.02), IL-8 (- 0.01; - 0.30, 0.28), and IFN-g (- 0.08; - 0.31, 0.15) and IL-17 concentrations (0.06; - 0.34, 0.46).
Conclusions: Probiotic supplementation significantly reduced serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, hs-CRP, TNF-a, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-4, but it did not influence IL-1B, IL-8, IFN-g, and IL-17 concentrations. A significant increase in serum concentrations of IL-10, as a anti-inflammatory cytokine was also documented after probiotic supplementation.
Keywords: Cytokine; Diet; Inflammation; Meta-analysis; Probiotic.