Physiology, Renal

In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan.


The renal system consists of the kidney, ureters, and the urethra. The overall function of the system filters approximately 200 liters of fluid a day from renal blood flow which allows for toxins, metabolic waste products, and excess ion to be excreted while keeping essential substances in the blood. The kidney regulates plasma osmolarity by modulating the amount of water, solutes, and electrolytes in the blood. It ensures long term acid-base balance and also produces erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cell. It also produces renin for blood pressure regulation and carries out the conversion of vitamin D to its active form. The renal development, the process of urine production and excretion, and the clinical significance of the renal system will be the focus of this article.

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