2019 update of the WSES guidelines for management of Clostridioides ( Clostridium) difficile infection in surgical patients

World J Emerg Surg. 2019 Feb 28;14:8. doi: 10.1186/s13017-019-0228-3. eCollection 2019.


In the last three decades, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in incidence and severity in many countries worldwide. The increase in CDI incidence has been particularly apparent among surgical patients. Therefore, prevention of CDI and optimization of management in the surgical patient are paramount. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts from the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) updated its guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients according to the most recent available literature. The update includes recent changes introduced in the management of this infection.

Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial treatment; Clostridioides difficile infection; Clostridium difficile infection; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Infection control; Pseudomembranous colitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship
  • Clostridioides difficile / pathogenicity*
  • Clostridium Infections / diagnosis
  • Clostridium Infections / therapy*
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / etiology
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / prevention & control
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation / methods
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation / trends
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infection Control / methods
  • Infection Control / trends
  • Postoperative Complications / therapy*
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents