Antimüllerian Hormone Levels of Infants With Premature Thelarche

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Sep 3;11(3):287-292. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2018.0293. Epub 2019 Mar 12.


Objective: Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in mini puberty are higher than those reported for the prepubertal period. In this study we investigated AMH concentrations in infants with premature thelarche (PT). A healthy control group was used for comparison.

Methods: Forty five female infants with PT, aged between one and three years and a control group consisting of 37 healthy girls in the same age range were included in the study. Bone age, pelvic ultrasonography, and concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and AMH of the patient group were evaluated. Only serum AMH concentration of the control group was evaluated.

Results: Median (range) serum AMH concentrations in the subjects were 1.66 ng/mL (11.85 pmol/L) [0.15-6.32 ng/mL (1.07-45.12 pmol/L)] and were significantly lower (p=0.025) than for the control group; 1.96 ng/mL (13.99 pmol/L) [0.60-8.49 ng/mL (4.28-60.64 pmol/L)]. AMH and FSH were negatively correlated (r=-0.360, p=0.015) in infants with PT. There was no correlation between AMH and uterine size, uterine volume, endometrial thickness, fundocervical ratio, ovarian size or volume, follicle size and follicle number.

Conclusion: This is the first study that investigates AMH concentrations in infants with PT. The low AMH levels in these infants and the negative correlation between AMH and FSH suggests that AMH may play a role in suppressing pubertal findings during infancy and that decreased AMH may cause PT in infancy.

Keywords: AMH; premature thelarche; infancy; mini-puberty.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / blood*
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Puberty, Precocious / blood*
  • Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis


  • Biomarkers
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone