Metabolism is a highly integrated process resulting in energy and biomass production. While individual metabolic routes are well characterized, the mechanisms ensuring crosstalk between pathways are poorly described, although they are crucial for homeostasis. Here, we establish a co-regulation of purine and pyridine metabolism in response to external adenine through two separable mechanisms. First, adenine depletion promotes transcriptional upregulation of the de novo NAD+ biosynthesis genes by a mechanism requiring the key-purine intermediates ZMP/SZMP and the Bas1/Pho2 transcription factors. Second, adenine supplementation favors the pyridine salvage route resulting in an ATP-dependent increase of intracellular NAD+. This control operates at the level of the nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyl-transferase Nma1 and can be bypassed by overexpressing this enzyme. Therefore, in yeast, pyridine metabolism is under the dual control of ZMP/SZMP and ATP, revealing a much wider regulatory role for these intermediate metabolites in an integrated biosynthesis network.
Keywords: S. cerevisiae; chromosomes; gene expression; homeostasis; metabolic regulation; yeast genetics.
© 2019, Pinson et al.