Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a significant complication after pediatric heart transplantation (HT), occurring in 5%-15% of patients within 3 years. Data >3 years from HT are limited. We sought to describe the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of PTLD occurring late (>3 years) after pediatric HT in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study from 1993 to 2010. Among 3844 primary HT patients, 110 (3%) developed late, nonrecurrent PTLD. The hazard rate for late PTLD was constant at 0.01 events/year out to 20 years after HT. Risk factors for late PTLD were younger age at HT (HR 1.06, P = 0.003) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) naivety (HR 1.65, P = 0.02). Survival after late PTLD was 86% and 68% at 1 and 5 years, with nonwhite race (HR 2.27, P = 0.03) and earlier year of HT (HR 1.03, P = 0.04) independently associated with mortality. Acute rejection and infection were both common after late PTLD, occurring in 26% and 34% of patients. The constant late hazard and contribution of EBV to late PTLD suggest that vigilance for development of PTLD, including for EBV conversion, should persist indefinitely after pediatric HT. The reasons for elevated risk of death for nonwhites after late PTLD are unclear and warrant further investigation.
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; heart transplant; pediatric transplant; post-transplant lymphoproliferative; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.