Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among U.S. Medicaid pediatric population aged <18 years 2002 to 2016 by age, sex, and race/ethnicity.
Methods: Participants aged <18 years old from 2002 to 2016 were identified from the MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid Database. Diabetes was defined as having (a) ≥1 claims for an outpatient or inpatient diabetes diagnosis and ≥2 prescriptions for any anti-diabetes medications or (b) records of ≥2 claims for an outpatient or inpatient diabetes diagnosis that were at least 30 days apart. Annual prevalence of diabetes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Age-, sex-, and race-stratified prevalence were also assessed.
Results: The annual prevalence of T1DM increased from 1.29 to 2.34/1000 pediatric persons from 2002 to 2016. The prevalence of T2DM rose from 0.70 in 2002 to 2.76/1000 in 2011, but then dropped to 2.12/1000 pediatric persons in 2016 in the Medicaid population. Prevalence of both T1DM and T2DM increased with age. While the prevalence of T1DM was similar in both sexes, and was most prevalent in Whites, prevalence of T2DM was higher in girls and was most prevalent in Blacks.
Conclusions: While the annual prevalence of T1DM in pediatric persons enrolled in Medicaid increased continuously from 2002 to 2016, the annual prevalence of T2DM increased from 2002 to 2011, with a subsequent decrease in 2016, possibly because of the increase of relatively healthier participants with the expanded eligibility through the ACA between 2011 and 2016.
Keywords: Medicaid; pediatric diabetes; prevalence; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.