Sleep Medicine: Insomnia and Sleep

Mo Med. 2019 Jan-Feb;116(1):68-75.


Insomnia disorder is an economic burden and public health concern affecting up to one-third of the population of the United States. It is mostly seen in older age groups, and often considered a normal aging phenomenon. The diagnosis and treatment of insomnia rely mainly on a thorough sleep history to address the precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. It is important for clinicians to recognize and manage the symptoms of insomnia to prevent the morbidity associated with it. This review aims to highlight the pathophysiology, associated comorbidities, clinical evaluation and effective management strategies for insomnia disorder.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Central Nervous System Depressants / therapeutic use
  • Comorbidity
  • GABA-A Receptor Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Histamine Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / therapeutic use
  • Life Style
  • Muscle Relaxants, Central / therapeutic use
  • Orexin Receptor Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical / therapeutic use
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / therapy


  • Central Nervous System Depressants
  • GABA-A Receptor Agonists
  • Histamine Agonists
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives
  • Muscle Relaxants, Central
  • Orexin Receptor Antagonists
  • Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical