Borneol for Regulating the Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier in Experimental Ischemic Stroke: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanism

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Feb 4;2019:2936737. doi: 10.1155/2019/2936737. eCollection 2019.


Borneol, a natural product in the Asteraceae family, is widely used as an upper ushering drug for various brain diseases in many Chinese herbal formulae. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an essential role in maintaining a stable homeostatic environment, while BBB destruction and the increasing BBB permeability are common pathological processes in many serious central nervous system (CNS) diseases, which is especially an essential pathological basis of cerebral ischemic injury. Here, we aimed to conduct a systematic review to assess preclinical evidence of borneol for experimental ischemic stroke as well as investigate in the possible neuroprotective mechanisms, which mainly focused on regulating the permeability of BBB. Seven databases were searched from their inception to July 2018. The studies of borneol for ischemic stroke in animal models were included. RevMan 5.3 was applied for data analysis. Fifteen studies investigated the effects of borneol in experimental ischemic stroke involving 308 animals were ultimately identified. The present study showed that the administration of borneol exerted a significant decrease of BBB permeability during cerebral ischemic injury according to brain Evans blue content and brain water content compared with controls (P < 0.01). In addition, borneol could improve neurological function scores (NFS) and cerebral infarction area. Thus, borneol may be a promising neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemic injury, largely through alleviating the BBB disruption, reducing oxidative reactions, inhibiting the occurrence of inflammation, inhibiting apoptosis, and improving the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and NO signaling pathway.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Brain Ischemia / drug therapy*
  • Brain Ischemia / pathology
  • Camphanes / pharmacology
  • Camphanes / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Stroke / drug therapy*
  • Stroke / pathology


  • Camphanes
  • isoborneol