Background: Mortality from cryptoccocal meningitis remains high. The ACTA trial demonstrated that, compared with 2 weeks of amphotericin B (AmB) plus flucystosine (5FC), 1 week of AmB and 5FC was associated with lower mortality and 2 weeks of oral flucanozole (FLU) plus 5FC was non-inferior. Here, we assess the cost-effectiveness of these different treatment courses.
Methods: Participants were randomized in a ratio of 2:1:1:1:1 to 2 weeks of oral 5FC and FLU, 1 week of AmB and FLU, 1 week of AmB and 5FC, 2 weeks of AmB and FLU, or 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC in Malawi, Zambia, Cameroon, and Tanzania. Data on individual resource use and health outcomes were collected. Cost-effectiveness was measured as incremental costs per life-year saved, and non-parametric bootstrapping was done.
Results: Total costs per patient were US $1442 for 2 weeks of oral FLU and 5FC, $1763 for 1 week of AmB and FLU, $1861 for 1 week of AmB and 5FC, $2125 for 2 weeks of AmB and FLU, and $2285 for 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC. Compared to 2 weeks of AmB and 5FC, 1 week of AmB and 5FC was less costly and more effective and 2 weeks of oral FLU and 5FC was less costly and as effective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for 1 week of AmB and 5FC versus oral FLU and 5FC was US $208 (95% confidence interval $91-1210) per life-year saved.
Clinical trials registration: ISRCTN45035509.
Conclusions: Both 1 week of AmB and 5FC and 2 weeks of Oral FLU and 5FC are cost-effective treatments.
Keywords: antifungal induction treatments; cost-effectiveness; cryptococcal meningitis; flucytosine; sub-Saharan Africa.
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.