Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), commonly encountered in urologic practice, carries with it a stigma of poor understanding, ineffective treatment, and significant financial and quality of life burden.
Materials and methods: This clinically practical review is based on the authors' personal clinical experience in interpretation and application of currently available evidence.
Results: Significant progress has been made in terms of classification and evaluation of the disease, leading to encouraging improvements in treatment outcomes. The Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) is a helpful tool in clinical evaluation and has proven invaluable for research purposes, while UPOINT has demonstrated the heterogeneity of the disease and provides physicians with a uniquely patient-centered approach to treatment. The importance of the microbiome in the evaluation of CP/CPPS patients has yet to be fully appreciated. While personalized, multi-modal therapy appears to be the key to treatment, the addition of pelvic floor physiotherapy (PFPT) with injection of trigger points, and psychosocial therapies to the multi-modal approach armamentarium are promising advances. Innovative interventional approaches are encouraging but require study.
Conclusions: While encouraging therapies have been added to personalized, multi-modal treatment strategies, newer innovative therapies appear promising for improved treatment of CP/CPPS patients.
Keywords: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome; Chronic prostatitis; Evaluation; Treatment.