Optical super-resolution techniques reach unprecedented spatial resolution down to a few nanometers. However, efficient multiplexing strategies for the simultaneous detection of hundreds of molecular species are still elusive. Here, we introduce an entirely new approach to multiplexed super-resolution microscopy by designing the blinking behavior of targets with engineered binding frequency and duration in DNA-PAINT. We assay this kinetic barcoding approach in silico and in vitro using DNA origami structures, show the applicability for multiplexed RNA and protein detection in cells, and finally experimentally demonstrate 124-plex super-resolution imaging within minutes.
Keywords: DNA nanotechnology; DNA-PAINT; Super-resolution microscopy; barcoding; multiplexing.