The glymphatic system is a highly polarized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transport system that facilitates the clearance of neurotoxic molecules through a brain-wide network of perivascular pathways. Herein we have mapped the development of the glymphatic system in mice. Perivascular CSF transport first emerges in hippocampus in newborn mice, and a mature glymphatic system is established in the cortex at 2 weeks of age. Formation of astrocytic endfeet and polarized expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) consistently coincided with the appearance of perivascular CSF transport. Deficiency of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) function in the PDGF retention motif knockout mouse line Pdgfbret/ret suppressed the development of the glymphatic system, whose functions remained suppressed in adulthood compared with wild-type mice. These experiments map the natural development of the glymphatic system in mice and define a critical role of PDGF-B in the development of perivascular CSF transport.
Keywords: aquaporin 4; astrocytes; cerebrospinal fluid; glymphatic system; platelet-derived growth factor B; postnatal development.
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