Variability in Catechin and Rutin Contents and Their Antioxidant Potential in Diverse Apple Genotypes

Molecules. 2019 Mar 7;24(5):943. doi: 10.3390/molecules24050943.


Catechins and rutin are among the main metabolites found in apple fruit. Sixty apple genotypes, harvested in 2016 and 2017, were analyzed for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The HPLC analysis showed that the catechin concentration ranged from 109.98 to 5290.47 µg/g, and the rutin concentration ranged from 12.136 to 483.89 µg/g of apple fruit. The level of DPPH activity ranged from 9.04% to 77.57%, and almost half of the 15 genotypes showed below 30⁻40% DPPH activity. The apple genotypes 'Lal Ambri', 'Green Sleeves', and 'Mallus floribunda' showed the highest DPPH activity of between 70% and 80%, while 'Schlomit', 'Luxtons Fortune', 'Mayaan', 'Ananas Retrine', and 'Chaubatia ambrose' showed the lowest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity (0.02⁻0.09%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between DPPH activity and catechin content (r = 0.7348) and rutin content (r = 0.1442). Regarding antioxidant activity, fractionated samples of apple genotypes revealed significant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. There was also a consistent trend for FRAP activity among all apple genotypes and a significant positive correlation between FRAP activity and rutin content (r = 0.244). Thus, this study reveals a significant variation in antioxidant potential among apple genotypes. This data could be useful for the development of new apple varieties with added phytochemicals by conventional and modern breeders.

Keywords: DPPH; FRAP; apple; catechins; polyphenolics; rutin.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Catechin / analysis*
  • Catechin / pharmacology
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Genotype
  • Malus / chemistry
  • Malus / genetics*
  • Plant Extracts / analysis
  • Rutin / analysis*
  • Rutin / pharmacology


  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Rutin
  • Catechin