Background: Molecular targeted chemotherapies have been shown to significantly improve the outcomes of patients who have cancer, but they often cause cardiovascular side effects that limit their use and impair patients' quality of life. Cardiac dysfunction induced by these therapies, especially trastuzumab, shows a distinct cardiotoxic clinical phenotype in comparison to the cardiotoxicity induced by conventional chemotherapies.
Methods: We used the human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (iPSC-CM) platform to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms in trastuzumab-induced cardiac dysfunction. We assessed the effects of trastuzumab on structural and functional properties in iPSC-CMs from healthy individuals and performed RNA-sequencing to further examine the effect of trastuzumab on iPSC-CMs. We also generated human induced pluripotent stem cells from patients receiving trastuzumab and examined whether patients' phenotype could be recapitulated in vitro by using patient-specific iPSC-CMs.
Results: We found that clinically relevant doses of trastuzumab significantly impaired the contractile and calcium-handling properties of iPSC-CMs without inducing cardiomyocyte death or sarcomeric disorganization. RNA-sequencing and subsequent functional analysis revealed mitochondrial dysfunction and altered the cardiac energy metabolism pathway as primary causes of trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxic phenotype. Human iPSC-CMs generated from patients who received trastuzumab and experienced severe cardiac dysfunction were more vulnerable to trastuzumab treatment than iPSC-CMs generated from patients who did not experience cardiac dysfunction following trastuzumab therapy. It is important to note that metabolic modulation with AMP-activated protein kinase activators could avert the adverse effects induced by trastuzumab.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that alterations in cellular metabolic pathways in cardiomyocytes could be a key mechanism underlying the development of cardiac dysfunction following trastuzumab therapy; therefore, targeting the altered metabolism may be a promising therapeutic approach for trastuzumab-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Keywords: cardiotoxicity; heart failure.