It remains a major challenge to achieve precise on-demand drug release. Here, we developed a modular nanomedicine integrated with logic-gated system enabling programmable drug release for on-demand chemotherapy. Methods: We employed two different logical AND gates consisting of four interrelated moieties to construct the nanovesicles, denoted as v-A-CED2, containing oxidation-responsive nanovesicles (v), radical generators (A), and Edman linker conjugated prodrugs (CED2). The first AND logic gate is connected in parallel by mild hyperthermia ( I ) and acidic pH ( II ), which executes NIR laser triggered prodrug-to-drug transformation through Edman degradation. Meanwhile, the mild hyperthermia effect triggers alkyl radical generation ( III ) which contributes to internal oxidation and degradation of nanovesicles ( IV ). The second AND logic gate is therefore formed by the combination of I-IV to achieve programmable drug release by a single stimulus input NIR laser. The biodistribution of the nanovesicles was monitored by positron emission tomography (PET), photoacoustic, and fluorescence imaging. Results: The developed modular nanovesicles exhibited high tumor accumulation and effective anticancer effects both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: This study provides a novel paradigm of logic-gated programmable drug release system by a modular nanovesicle, which may shed light on innovation of anticancer agents and strategies.
Keywords: cancer therapy; drug release; logic-gated; modular nanomedicine; nanovesicle.