Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in many developed countries and remains one of the major diseases strongly affected by the diet. Nutrition can affect CVD directly by contributing to the accumulation of vascular plaques and also indirectly by regulating the rate of aging. This review summarizes research on nutrition and CVD incidence based on a multipillar system that includes basic research focused on aging, epidemiological studies, clinical studies, and studies of centenarians. The relevant research linking nutrition and CVD with focus on macronutrients and aging will be highlighted. We will review some of the most relevant studies on nutrition and CVD treatment, also focusing on interventions known to delay aging. We will discuss both everyday dietary compositions, as well as intermittent and periodic fasting interventions with the potential to prevent and treat CVD.
Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; diet; fasting; prevention and control; research.