Purpose: To examine the etiology, clinical course, and management of recurrent peripheral facial nerve paralysis.
Methods: Retrospective review at a single tertiary academic center and systematic review of the literature. Clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging findings, treatment and outcome for all cases of recurrent ipsilateral, recurrent contralateral, and bilateral simultaneous cases of facial paralysis are reviewed.
Results: Between 2000 and 2017, 53 patients [41.5% men, 29 median age of onset (range 2.5 wk-75 yr)] were evaluated for recurrent facial nerve paralysis at the authors' institution. Twenty-two (41.5%) cases presented with ipsilateral recurrences only, while the remaining 31 patients (58.5%) had at least 1 episode of contralateral recurrent paralysis. No cases of bilateral simultaneous facial nerve paralysis were observed. The median number of paretic events for all patients was 3 (range 2-20). The median nadir House-Brackmann score was 4, with a median recovery to House-Brackmann grade 1.5 over a mean recovery time of 61.8 days (range 1-420 d). Diagnostic evaluation confirmed Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome in four (7.5%) cases, neurosarcoidosis in two (3.7%), traumatic neuroma in one (1.9%), Ramsay Hunt syndrome in one (1.9%), granulomatosis with polyangiitis in one (1.9%), and neoplastic causes in three (5.7%) cases [facial nerve schwannoma (n = 2; 3.7%), metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the deep lobe of the parotid gland (n = 1; 1.9%)]; ultimately, 77.4% (41) of cases were deemed idiopathic. Facial nerve decompression via a middle cranial fossa approach was performed in three (5.7%) cases without subsequent episodes of paralysis.
Conclusion: Recurrent facial nerve paralysis is uncommon and few studies have evaluated this unique population. Recurrent ipsilateral and contralateral episodes are most commonly attributed to idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (i.e., Bell's palsy); however, a subset harbor neoplastic causes or local manifestations of underlying systemic disease. A comprehensive diagnostic evaluation is warranted in patients presenting with recurrent facial nerve paralysis and therapeutic considerations including facial nerve decompression can be considered in select cases.