Sirtuins in Alzheimer's Disease: SIRT2-Related GenoPhenotypes and Implications for PharmacoEpiGenetics

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 12;20(5):1249. doi: 10.3390/ijms20051249.


Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are NAD⁺-dependent protein deacetylases/ADP ribosyltransferases with important roles in chromatin silencing, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, cellular stress response, metabolism and aging. Sirtuins are components of the epigenetic machinery, which is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), contributing to AD pathogenesis. There is an association between the SIRT2-C/T genotype (rs10410544) (50.92%) and AD susceptibility in the APOEε4-negative population (SIRT2-C/C, 34.72%; SIRT2-T/T 14.36%). The integration of SIRT2 and APOE variants in bigenic clusters yields 18 haplotypes. The 5 most frequent bigenic genotypes in AD are 33CT (27.81%), 33CC (21.36%), 34CT (15.29%), 34CC (9.76%) and 33TT (7.18%). There is an accumulation of APOE-3/4 and APOE-4/4 carriers in SIRT2-T/T > SIRT2-C/T > SIRT2-C/C carriers, and also of SIRT2-T/T and SIRT2-C/T carriers in patients who harbor the APOE-4/4 genotype. SIRT2 variants influence biochemical, hematological, metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes, and modestly affect the pharmacoepigenetic outcome in AD. SIRT2-C/T carriers are the best responders, SIRT2-T/T carriers show an intermediate pattern, and SIRT2-C/C carriers are the worst responders to a multifactorial treatment. In APOE-SIRT2 bigenic clusters, 33CC carriers respond better than 33TT and 34CT carriers, whereas 24CC and 44CC carriers behave as the worst responders. CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EM) are the best responders, poor metabolizers (PM) are the worst responders, and ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM) tend to be better responders that intermediate metabolizers (IM). In association with CYP2D6 genophenotypes, SIRT2-C/T-EMs are the best responders. Some Sirtuin modulators might be potential candidates for AD treatment.

Keywords: APOE; Alzheimer’s disease; CYP2D6; SIRT2; epigenetics; genophenotypes; multifactorial treatment; pharmacoepigenetics; pharmacogenetics; sirtuins 1–7.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics*
  • Apolipoprotein E4 / genetics
  • Apolipoproteins E / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • Genetic Variation / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Heterozygote
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pharmacogenetics / methods
  • Phenotype
  • Sirtuin 2 / genetics*
  • Sirtuins / genetics*


  • Apolipoprotein E4
  • Apolipoproteins E
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • SIRT2 protein, human
  • Sirtuin 2
  • Sirtuins