Initial Validation of the MAKE Framework: A Comprehensive Instrument for Evaluating the Efficacy of Game-Based Learning and Gamification in Adolescent Sexual Health Literacy

Ann Glob Health. 2019 Feb 28;85(1):19. doi: 10.5334/aogh.1110.


Objectives: When evaluating the effectiveness of a method for instructing adolescents in sexual health literacy, it is essential to consider how the method motivates learning, promotes a change of attitude, increases knowledge gain, and engages students (MAKE). This article reports on the development and validation of a unified, comprehensive framework for evaluating the efficacy of games in teaching sexual health behaviors for curbing unhealthy sexual outcomes to secondary school adolescents in low resource settings.

Methods: The initial validation of the MAKE framework was administered to 120 students using quantitative data collection and analysis. It was then subjected to factor analysis tests to investigate the items' structure, and Cronbach's alpha was applied to measure the scale reliability using SPSS Version 24.

Results: Data analyses demonstrate that the MAKE framework is a comprehensive instrument to evaluate teaching methods with four powerful constructs, each of which has two to four components. For each construct, the following data were obtained: for motivation, standardized alpha = 0.92, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) = 0.88, and p = 0.001; for attitude, standardized Cronbach's alpha = 0.90, KMO = 0.88, and p = 0.001; for knowledge, standardized alpha = 0.92, KMO = 0.86, and p = 0.001; and finally, for engagement, standardized alpha = 0.90, KMO = 0.87, and p = 0.001. Cronbach's alpha for each component was above the cut-off point (0.65).

Conclusions: This study shows that the MAKE framework is a satisfactory instrument for assessing the efficacy of teaching methods for sexual health literacy in a variety of teaching environments. The method may also have value for assessing the effectiveness of other methods in adolescent sexual health education.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Educational Measurement
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Health Education
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Literacy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motivation*
  • Sex Education / methods*
  • Sexual Health / education
  • Tanzania
  • Video Games*