Organ-on-chip platforms provide models that allow the representation of human physiological processes in cell-based miniaturized systems. Potential pre-clinical applications include drug testing and toxicity studies. Here we describe the use of a multi-compartment micro-fluidic chip to recapitulate hepatic vitamin D metabolism (vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and renal bio-activation (25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) in humans. In contrast to cultivation in conventional tissue culture settings, on-chip cultivation of HepG2 and RPTEC cells in interconnected chambers, used to mimic the liver and kidneys, respectively, resulted in the enhanced expression of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes (CYP2R1, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1). Pump-driven flow of vitamin D3-containing medium through the microfluidic chip produced eluate containing vitamin D3 metabolites. LC-MSMS showed a strong accumulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The chip eluate induced the expression of differentiation markers in HL-60 (acute myeloid leukemia) cells, assessed by qPCR and FACS analysis, in a manner similar to treatment with reference standards indicating the presence of fully activated 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, although the latter was not detected in the eluate by LC-MSMS. Interestingly, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by itself led to weak activation of HL-60 cells suggesting that 25-hydroxyvitamin D is also an active metabolite. Our experiments demonstrate that complex metabolic interactions can be reconstructed outside the human body using dedicated organ-on-chip platforms. We therefore propose that such systems may be used to mimic the in vivo metabolism of various micronutrients and xenobiotics.