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. 2019 Nov;54(11):2348-2352.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.01.068. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy for Pediatric Adrenal Tumors

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Posterior Retroperitoneoscopic Adrenalectomy for Pediatric Adrenal Tumors

York Tien Lee et al. J Pediatr Surg. .

Abstract

Background/aims: Posterior retroperitoneoscoic adrenalectomy has been reported as an option for adrenal tumor resection but is not commonly performed in children owing to the extreme semikneeling position advocated to flatten the lumbar lordosis in order to achieve adequate retroperitoneal space. As children have smaller lordosis angles, flattening of the lordosis and creation of optimal retroperitoneal space may be achieved with less hip flexion. We used pediatric lumbar lordosis measurements to develop a modified prone jackknife position and report our experiences with this setup for posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal tumors.

Methods: Lordosis angles were measured on sagittal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of patients with adrenal tumors and compared to normal references. The data were used to develop our modified prone jackknife position. Selected patients with adrenal tumors underwent posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in this position. Patient demographics, diagnoses, operative times, complications, postop analgesia requirements, and length of hospitalization were analyzed.

Results: CT and MRI studies were analyzed for 20 patients with adrenal tumors diagnosed in our institution from 2012 to 2017; median lordosis angle was 27.84° (range: 15.50°-36.48°) - less than reference lordosis angles of respective age groups, and flexion angles of common operating tables. Five patients underwent retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy between June 2016 and June 2018. Histological diagnoses were neuroblastoma, adrenal hyperplasia, pheochromocytoma, and adrenal angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma. Median age was 4 years [range: 1-11]. Median operating time was 137 min [range 111-181 min]. No conversions to open surgery were required. One patient had intraoperative bleeding from the adrenal vein. Only 1 patient required postoperative opioids for analgesia. Median length of hospitalization after surgery was 2 days (range: 2-3 days).

Conclusions: Pediatric patients can achieve flattening of lumbar lordosis with less extreme positioning. Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in a modified prone jackknife position is a feasible operation for pediatric patients with small adrenal masses.

Type of study: Clinical research paper.

Level of evidence: Level III.

Keywords: Adenalectomy; Lumbar lordosis angle; Prone positioning; Retroperitoneoscopy.

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