Assessment of Brain Injury and Brain Volumes after Posthemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation: A Nested Substudy of the Randomized Controlled ELVIS Trial

J Pediatr. 2019 May;208:191-197.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.12.062. Epub 2019 Mar 14.


Objective: To compare the effect of early and late intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation on additional brain injury and ventricular volume using term-equivalent age-MRI.

Study design: In the Early vs Late Ventricular Intervention Study (ELVIS) trial, 126 preterm infants ≤34 weeks of gestation with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation were randomized to low-threshold (ventricular index >p97 and anterior horn width >6 mm) or high-threshold (ventricular index >p97 + 4 mm and anterior horn width >10 mm) groups. In 88 of those (80%) with a term-equivalent age-MRI, the Kidokoro Global Brain Abnormality Score and the frontal and occipital horn ratio were measured. Automatic segmentation was used for volumetric analysis.

Results: The total Kidokoro score of the infants in the low-threshold group (n = 44) was lower than in the high-threshold group (n = 44; median, 8 [IQR, 5-12] vs median 12 [IQR, 9-17], respectively; P < .001). More infants in the low-threshold group had a normal or mildly increased score vs more infants in the high-threshold group with a moderately or severely increased score (46% vs 11% and 89% vs 54%, respectively; P = .002). The frontal and occipital horn ratio was lower in the low-threshold group (median, 0.42 [IQR, 0.34-0.63]) than the high-threshold group (median 0.48 [IQR, 0.37-0.68], respectively; P = .001). Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volumes could be calculated in 47 infants and were smaller in the low-threshold group (P = .03).

Conclusions: More brain injury and larger ventricular volumes were demonstrated in the high vs the low-threshold group. These results support the positive effects of early intervention for posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.

Trial registration: ISRCTN43171322.

Keywords: MRI; newborn; posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Brain Injuries / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery
  • Cerebral Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts*
  • Dilatation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrocephalus / diagnostic imaging
  • Hydrocephalus / surgery
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / physiopathology
  • Infant, Premature, Diseases / surgery
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages / physiopathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • White Matter / diagnostic imaging