Background: Pigs/bovines share with humans some of the antigens present on cardiac valves. Two such antigens are: the major xenogenic Ag, "Gal" present in all pig/bovine very close to human B-antigen of ABO-blood-group system; the minor Ag, pig histo-blood-group AH-antigen identical to human AH-antigen and present by some animals. We hypothesize that these antigens may modify the immunogenicity of the bioprosthesis and also its longevity. ABO distribution may vary between patients with low (<6 years) and high (≥15 years) bioprostheses longevity.
Methods: Single-centre registry study (Paris, France) including all degenerative porcine bioprostheses (mostly Carpentier-Edwards 2nd/3rd generation heart valves) explanted between 1985 and 1998 and some bovine bioprostheses. For period 1998-2014, all porcine bioprostheses with longevity ≥13 years (follow-up ≥29 years). Important predictive factors for bioprosthesis longevity: number, site of implantation, age were collected. Blood group and other variables were entered into an ordinal logistic regression analysis model predicting valve longevity, categorized as low (<6 years), medium (6-14.9 years), and high (≥15 years).
Findings: Longevity and ABO-blood group were obtained for 483 explanted porcine bioprostheses. Mean longevity was 10.2 ± 3.9 years [0-28] and significantly higher for A-patients than others (P = 0.009). Using multivariate analysis, group A was a strong predictive factor of longevity (OR 2.09; P < 0.001). For the 64 explanted bovine bioprosthesis with low/medium longevity, the association, with A-group was even more significant.
Interpretation: Patients of A-group but not B have a higher longevity of their bioprostheses. Future graft-host phenotyping and matching may give rise to a new generation of long-lasting bioprosthesis for implantation in humans, especially for the younger population. FUND: None.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.