Recipients with blood group A associated with longer survival rates in cardiac valvular bioprostheses

EBioMedicine. 2019 Apr;42:54-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.02.047. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Abstract

Background: Pigs/bovines share with humans some of the antigens present on cardiac valves. Two such antigens are: the major xenogenic Ag, "Gal" present in all pig/bovine very close to human B-antigen of ABO-blood-group system; the minor Ag, pig histo-blood-group AH-antigen identical to human AH-antigen and present by some animals. We hypothesize that these antigens may modify the immunogenicity of the bioprosthesis and also its longevity. ABO distribution may vary between patients with low (<6 years) and high (≥15 years) bioprostheses longevity.

Methods: Single-centre registry study (Paris, France) including all degenerative porcine bioprostheses (mostly Carpentier-Edwards 2nd/3rd generation heart valves) explanted between 1985 and 1998 and some bovine bioprostheses. For period 1998-2014, all porcine bioprostheses with longevity ≥13 years (follow-up ≥29 years). Important predictive factors for bioprosthesis longevity: number, site of implantation, age were collected. Blood group and other variables were entered into an ordinal logistic regression analysis model predicting valve longevity, categorized as low (<6 years), medium (6-14.9 years), and high (≥15 years).

Findings: Longevity and ABO-blood group were obtained for 483 explanted porcine bioprostheses. Mean longevity was 10.2 ± 3.9 years [0-28] and significantly higher for A-patients than others (P = 0.009). Using multivariate analysis, group A was a strong predictive factor of longevity (OR 2.09; P < 0.001). For the 64 explanted bovine bioprosthesis with low/medium longevity, the association, with A-group was even more significant.

Interpretation: Patients of A-group but not B have a higher longevity of their bioprostheses. Future graft-host phenotyping and matching may give rise to a new generation of long-lasting bioprosthesis for implantation in humans, especially for the younger population. FUND: None.

MeSH terms

  • ABO Blood-Group System*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Child
  • Female
  • France / epidemiology
  • Health Surveys
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / adverse effects
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation* / methods
  • Humans
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prognosis
  • Registries
  • Survival Rate*
  • Swine
  • Transplant Recipients*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • ABO Blood-Group System