Comparison of Dual Therapies for Lowering Blood Pressure in Black Africans

N Engl J Med. 2019 Jun 20;380(25):2429-2439. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1901113. Epub 2019 Mar 18.


Background: The prevalence of hypertension among black African patients is high, and these patients usually need two or more medications for blood-pressure control. However, the most effective two-drug combination that is currently available for blood-pressure control in these patients has not been established.

Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, three-group trial conducted in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we randomly assigned 728 black patients with uncontrolled hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg while the patient was not being treated or was taking only one antihypertensive drug) to receive a daily regimen of 5 mg of amlodipine plus 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, 5 mg of amlodipine plus 4 mg of perindopril, or 4 mg of perindopril plus 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide for 2 months. Doses were then doubled (10 and 25 mg, 10 and 8 mg, and 8 and 25 mg, respectively) for an additional 4 months. The primary end point was the change in the 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure between baseline and 6 months.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 51 years, and 63% were women. Among the 621 patients who underwent 24-hour blood-pressure monitoring at baseline and at 6 months, those receiving amlodipine plus hydrochlorothiazide and those receiving amlodipine plus perindopril had a lower 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure than those receiving perindopril plus hydrochlorothiazide (between-group difference in the change from baseline, -3.14 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.90 to -0.38; P = 0.03; and -3.00 mm Hg; 95% CI, -5.8 to -0.20; P = 0.04, respectively). The difference between the group receiving amlodipine plus hydrochlorothiazide and the group receiving amlodipine plus perindopril was -0.14 mm Hg (95% CI, -2.90 to 2.61; P=0.92). Similar differential effects on office and ambulatory diastolic blood pressures, along with blood-pressure control and response rates, were apparent among the three groups.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that in black patients in sub-Saharan Africa, amlodipine plus either hydrochlorothiazide or perindopril was more effective than perindopril plus hydrochlorothiazide at lowering blood pressure at 6 months. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Africa Noncommunicable Disease Open Lab; CREOLE number, NCT02742467.).

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Africa South of the Sahara
  • Aged
  • Amlodipine / administration & dosage*
  • Amlodipine / adverse effects
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / adverse effects
  • Black People
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hydrochlorothiazide / administration & dosage*
  • Hydrochlorothiazide / adverse effects
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perindopril / administration & dosage*
  • Perindopril / adverse effects
  • Single-Blind Method


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • amlodipine, perindopril drug combination
  • Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Amlodipine
  • Perindopril

Associated data