Limited antiretrovirals are currently available for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 infection. Ibalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, represents the first novel agent for HIV-1 management in over a decade and is the first monoclonal antibody for the treatment of MDR HIV-1 infection in combination with other forms of antiretroviral therapy in heavily treatment-experienced adults who are failing their current antiretroviral regimen. Ibalizumab demonstrates a novel mechanism of action as a CD4-directed postattachment inhibitor and has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile that allows for a dosing interval of every 14 days after an initial loading dose. Clinical studies have demonstrated reasonably substantial antiretroviral activity with ibalizumab among a complex patient population with advanced HIV-1 infection who are receiving an optimized background regimen, where limited therapeutic options exist. Ibalizumab was well tolerated in clinical trials, and the most common adverse effects included diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, and rash. Resistance to ibalizumab has also been observed via reduced expression or loss of the potential N-linked glycosylation sites in the V5 loop of the envelope glycoprotein 120. The mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic parameters, efficacy, and safety of ibalizumab present an advance in the management of MDR HIV-1 infection. Future studies and postmarketing experience will further determine longer-term clinical efficacy, safety, and resistance data for ibalizumab.
Keywords: CD4 postattachment inhibitor; HIV; antiretroviral; ibalizumab; ibalizumab-uiyk; monoclonal antibody; multidrug-resistant HIV.
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.