Highly efficient genome editing for single-base substitutions using optimized ssODNs with Cas9-RNPs

Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 18;9(1):4811. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41121-4.


Target-specific genome editing using engineered nucleases has become widespread in various fields. Long gene knock-in and single-base substitutions can be performed by homologous recombination (HR), but the efficiency is usually very low. To improve the efficiency of knock-in with single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotides (ssODNs), we have investigated optimal design of ssODNs in terms of the blocking mutation, orientation, size, and length of homology arms to explore the optimal parameters of ssODN design using reporter systems for the detection of single-base substitutions. We have also investigated the difference in knock-in efficiency among the delivery forms and methods of Cas9 and sgRNA. The knock-in efficiencies for optimized ssODNs were much higher than those for ssODNs with no blocking mutation. We have also demonstrated that Cas9 protein/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (Cas9-RNPs) can dramatically reduce the re-cutting of the edited sites.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence / genetics
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems / genetics*
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods
  • DNA, Single-Stranded / genetics
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Gene Editing / methods*
  • Gene Knock-In Techniques / methods*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Oligonucleotides / genetics
  • RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida / genetics
  • Ribonucleoproteins / genetics*
  • Transfection / methods


  • DNA, Single-Stranded
  • Oligonucleotides
  • RNA, Guide
  • Ribonucleoproteins