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Review
, 703, 68-78

Endo-lysosomal Pathway and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

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Review

Endo-lysosomal Pathway and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis

Jiqing Cao et al. Neurosci Lett.

Abstract

Several lines of evidence have shown that defects in the endo-lysosomal autophagy degradation pathway and the ubiquitin-proteasome system play a role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Early pathological changes, such as marked enlargement of endosomal compartments, gradual accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) and lysosome dyshomeostasis, are well-recognized in AD. In addition to these pathological indicators, many genetic variants of key regulators in the endo-lysosomal autophagy networks and the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been found to be associated with AD. Furthermore, altered expression levels of key proteins in these pathways have been found in AD human brain tissues, primary cells and AD mouse models. In this review, we discuss potential disease mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of protein homeostasis governing systems. While the importance of two major protein degradation pathways in AD pathogenesis has been highlighted, targeted therapy at key components of these pathways has great potential in developing novel therapeutic interventions for AD. Future investigations are needed to define molecular mechanisms by which these complex regulatory systems become malfunctional at specific stages of AD development and progression, which will facilitate future development of novel therapeutic interventions. It is also critical to investigate all key components of the protein degradation pathways, both upstream and downstream, to improve our abilities to manipulate transport pathways with higher efficacy and less side effects.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Endo-lysosomal dysregulation; Impaired autophagy; Pathogenesis; Proteostasis; Ubiquitin-proteasome system.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Protein degradation pathways affected in Alzheimer’s Disease. The endo-lysosomal pathway, autophagy, and ubiquitin-proteasome system are the three main regulatory routes of protein degradation. During AD progression, aberrant expression and/or impaired function of key components of these pathways, as well as defects in the interactions between upstream and downstream components involved in protein homeostasis induce dysregulation of proteostasis contributing to AD pathogenesis. Targeted therapy to key players of these pathways becomes a promising strategy for developing novel therapeutic interventions for AD.

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