Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E1 Helicase with UAF1-USP1 Promotes Unidirectional Theta Replication of Viral Genomes

mBio. 2019 Mar 19;10(2):e00152-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00152-19.

Abstract

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important pathogens with a significant medical burden. HPV genomes replicate in infected cells via bidirectional theta replication and a poorly understood unidirectional mechanism. In this report, we provide evidence that the previously described interaction between the viral E1 helicase and the cellular UAF1-USP1 deubiquitinating enzyme complex, a member of the Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway, is required for the completion of the bidirectional theta replication of the HPV11 genome and the subsequent initiation of the unidirectional replication. We show that unidirectional replication proceeds via theta structures and is supported by the cellular Bloom helicase, which interacts directly with E1 and whose engagement in HPV11 replication requires UAF1-USP1 activity. We propose that the unidirectional replication of the HPV11 genome initiates from replication fork restart events. These findings suggest a new role for the Fanconi anemia pathway in HPV replication.IMPORTANCE Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important pathogens that replicate their double-stranded circular DNA genome in the nucleus of infected cells. HPV genomes replicate in infected cells via bidirectional theta replication and a poorly understood unidirectional mechanism, and the onset of viral replication requires the engagement of cellular DNA damage response pathways. In this study, we showed that the previously described interaction between the viral E1 helicase and the cellular UAF1-USP1 complex is necessary for the completion of bidirectional replication and the subsequent initiation of the unidirectional replication mechanism. Our results suggest HPVs may use the cellular Fanconi anemia DNA damage pathway to achieve the separation of daughter molecules generated by bidirectional theta replication. Additionally, our results indicate that the unidirectional replication of the HPV genome is initiated from restarted bidirectional theta replication forks.

Keywords: DNA replication; FA pathway; human papillomavirus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • DNA Replication*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Human papillomavirus 11 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases / metabolism*
  • Viral Proteins / metabolism*
  • Virus Replication*

Substances

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • E1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 11
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • USP1 associated factor 1, human
  • Viral Proteins
  • USP1 protein, human
  • Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases