PrEP's potential benefit for men who have sex with men (MSM) who use stimulants may be limited by adherence or prescriber willingness to recommend PrEP due to concerns of non-compliance. Using data from PATH-PrEP, a 48-week study evaluating PrEP for MSM in Los Angeles, we modeled an interaction between stimulant use and condomless sex with multiple partners (CAS-MP) on prevention-effective dried blood spot tenofovir-diphosphate concentrations. At week 4, participants reporting stimulant use and CAS-MP had a decreased odds of prevention-effective adherence compared to non-stimulant use and non-CAS-MP (AOR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.57). From week 4-48, participants reporting stimulant use and CAS-MP had increased odds of prevention-effective adherence (AOR 1.06 per week, 95%CI 1.01-1.12). Participants reporting CAS-MP without stimulant use had no significant change in prevention-effective adherence (AOR 0.99 per week, 95%CI 0.96-1.02). Stimulant use moderated the association of CAS-MP on prevention-effective PrEP adherence over time.
Keywords: MSM; PrEP; adherence; condomless anal sex; stimulant.