Actinomycosis osteomyelitis of the jaw bones, particularly in the maxilla, is an extremely rare disease. This report presents two cases of maxillary and two cases of mandibular actinomycosis osteomyelitis, with the diagnosis particularly based on histological procedures. The highly diversified pathogenicity of the phenomenon and the absence of solid diagnostic criteria are discussed. Laboratory challenges are emphasized, and a comprehensive overview of the entity including treatment alternatives is given along with a review of the relevant literature.
Keywords: actinomycosis; alveolar bone loss; cervicofacial; osteomyelitis.