Dietary Exposure to Sulfites in Indonesians

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2019;28(1):122-130. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.201903_28(1).0017.


Background and objectives: Information on dietary exposure to sulfites as preservative in consumer is needed as a scientific base for food safety policy making. The objective of this research was to conduct dietary exposure assessment to sulfites in consumers by using a deterministic method.

Methods and study design: The scope of work was identification of food products containing sulfites, determination of food consumption data from the individual food consumption survey report of 2014, determination of sulfite concentration in food, and calculation of sulfite exposure.

Results: 3,428 (9%) of 37,613 food products registered in National Agency of Drug and Food Control (2012-2015) may contain sulfite. The most used sulfite in food products was sodium metabisulfite. The mean of food containing sulfite consumption in all age groups was 131.4 g/person/day. The estimation of total exposure for all age groups were 0.27 mg/kgBW/day (38.6% ADI), 0.25 mg/kgBW/day (35.7% ADI) and 0.08 mg/kgBW/day (11.4% ADI) by using concentrations of Maximum Permitted Limit, reported maximum used level and reported maximum product test result, respectively. Food category contributed to the highest exposure in all age groups was spices, condiments, vinegar, powder or mixture for soups and broths, and other soy sauce category.

Conclusions: The highest total exposure to sulfites was found in 0-59 month age group. The highest total exposure for the MPL (0.79 mg/kgBW/day) and the reported maximum used level (0.73 mg/kgBW/day) exceeded 112.9% ADI and 104.3% ADI, respectively while the exposure using reported maximum test result was still below ADI (0.25 mg/kgBW/day or 35.7% ADI).

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diet
  • Diet Surveys*
  • Dietary Exposure*
  • Female
  • Food Preservatives / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Indonesia
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sulfites / administration & dosage*
  • Young Adult


  • Food Preservatives
  • Sulfites