To assess complications of condom catheters compared with indwelling urethral catheters, we conducted a prospective cohort study in two Veterans Affairs hospitals. Male patients who used a condom catheter or indwelling urethral catheter during their hospital stay were followed for one month by interview and medical record review. Participants included 36 men who used condom catheters and 44 who used indwelling urethral catheters. At least one catheter-related complication was reported by 80.6% of condom catheter users and 88.6% of indwelling catheter users (P = .32), and noninfectious complications (eg, leaking urine, pain, or discomfort) were more common than infectious complications in both groups. Condom catheter patients were significantly less likely than indwelling catheter patients to report complications during catheter placement (13.9% vs 43.2%; P < .001). Patients reported approximately three times more noninfectious complications than the number recorded in the medical record.