Vital Signs: HIV Transmission Along the Continuum of Care - United States, 2016

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Mar 22;68(11):267-272. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6811e1.


Background: In 2016, an estimated 1.1 million persons had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States; 38,700 were new infections. Knowledge of HIV infection status, behavior change, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) all prevent HIV transmission. Persons who achieve and maintain viral suppression (achieved by most persons within 6 months of starting ART) can live long, healthy lives and pose effectively no risk of HIV transmission to their sexual partners.

Methods: A model was used to estimate transmission rates in 2016 along the HIV continuum of care. Data for sexual and needle-sharing behaviors were obtained from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Estimated HIV prevalence, incidence, receipt of care, and viral suppression were obtained from National HIV Surveillance System data.

Results: Overall, the HIV transmission rate was 3.5 per 100 person-years in 2016. Along the HIV continuum of care, the transmission rates from persons who were 1) acutely infected and unaware of their infection, 2) non-acutely infected and unaware, 3) aware of HIV infection but not in care, 4) receiving HIV care but not virally suppressed, and 5) taking ART and virally suppressed were 16.1, 8.4, 6.6, 6.1, and 0 per 100 person-years, respectively. The percentages of all transmissions generated by each group were 4.0%, 33.6%, 42.6%, 19.8%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Approximately 80% of new HIV transmissions are from persons who do not know they have HIV infection or are not receiving regular care. Going forward, increasing the percentage of persons with HIV infection who have achieved viral suppression and do not transmit HIV will be critical for ending the HIV epidemic in the United States.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Continuity of Patient Care*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Statistical
  • Needle Sharing / psychology
  • Population Surveillance*
  • Risk-Taking
  • Sexual Behavior / psychology
  • Substance Abuse, Intravenous / complications
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Viral Load
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-HIV Agents