With a broad range of hosts, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is the major cause of gastroenteritis in human beings and systemic disease in susceptible mice strains. However, different S. Typhimurium strains differ in regard to virulence and host adaptation. Here, C57BL/6 mice were infected, respectively, with different S. Typhimurium strains SL1344 (calf), CVCC541 (chicken) and CMCC50115 (mutton) to determine their virulence and host immune responses. It was found that mice were less susceptible to infection by S. Typhimurium CVCC541 and CMCC50115 strains, with lower lethality and decreased bacterial burden in liver and spleen. Besides, S. Typhimurium strains CVCC541 and CMCC50115 enhanced host innate immune responses by increased frequencies of macrophages and neutrophils 3 days after infection. But SL1344 strain evaded immune response by inducing apoptosis of macrophages. Moreover, CVCC541 could elicit adaptive immune responses of host 11 days after infection upon examination of the proliferation and activation of CD4+ T cells. In addition, 125 and 138 unique mutant coding genes, respectively, in S. Typhimurium strains CVCC541 and CMCC50115 and 78 shared mutant coding genes were annotated by genomic alignment to SL1344 genome and the signal pathways involving these genes were further analyzed. The acquired results indicate that different original S. Typhimurium strains show differential virulence and may induce diverse immune responses in the same host infected.
Keywords: serovar Typhimurium; immune response; mice; virulence.