Milk Protein Enriched Beverage Reduces Post-Exercise Energy Intakes in Women With Higher Levels of Cognitive Dietary Restraint

Food Res Int. 2019 Apr;118:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.11.055. Epub 2017 Nov 22.


Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the satiating efficacy of milk proteins compared to carbohydrates in twenty women during post-exercise period.

Methods: A milk protein-enriched beverage (MPB), and an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched beverage (CB) containing respectively 9.3g and 0.3g of milk proteins per 100mL beverage, were developed and tested in a satiety study with 20 free-living healthy and normal weight women. The participants drank 250mL of the two beverages after an aerobic exercise session, filled daily food diaries and rated their appetite on visual analogue scale (VAS), in two days over three consecutive weeks. A psychometric evaluation of eating behaviour was obtained by three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ).

Results: No differences in appetite feelings and energy intakes between MPB and CB were found in the study population. However, 9 participants were significantly less hungry (-9% vs+15%, p 0.03) and ate later (208min vs 127min, p 0.03) and less (-10% vs+8% daily energy intake, p 0.01) when they had MPB than CB. These women had a slightly higher BMI and were more restrained than the others.

Conclusions: Data showed that MPB compared to CB could modify daily eating habits by enhancing satiety in women with a stronger cognitive control of eating behaviour.

Keywords: Appetite control; Eating behaviour; Energy intake; Functional food; Milk proteins.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite
  • Beverages*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cognition*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Intake*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Functional Food
  • Humans
  • Milk Proteins*
  • Satiation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Women*
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Milk Proteins